Three kinds of persuasion


Appearing knowledgeable about the topic, and being a person of good character

Should be established prior to speaking

Establish common ground:

Live a life of virtue - avoid hypocrisy at all costs

Readings on ethos:


The Appeal to Emotion

Emotion is more powerful than rationality.

People remember stories over facts, because stories tap into emotion.

Figures of speech:

Readings on pathos:


The appeal to reason

Syllogism: "All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal."

Make sure it's sound. An argument is sound if:

  1. the argument is valid, and
  2. all of its premises are true

Reversing the example syllogism is a logical fallacy - a subset may be part of a superset, but the superset is not a subset of its own subset.

Readings on logos