I'm writing this to use as reference for a language generator. The following are unusual characters that can be used to represent specific sounds.
Otherwise, everything can be represented more-or-less with standard English letters. Wikipedia has a page with IPA charts for further information.
Phonology: The sound system of a language
Syntax: The set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, including word order
Morphology: The structure of words and parts of words, including stems, root words, and affixes
Vocabulary: A set of words within a language
Orthography: The written form of language
Phoneme: A unit of sound that can distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Morpheme: The minimal meaningful unit of a language.
Lexeme: A singular concept expressed as a word.
In morphology, lexeme and word-form are two separate but related concepts that define a "word." As an example:
The lexeme eat contains the word-forms eat, eats, eaten, and ate. The lexemes eat and eater are different concepts - one is a verb and the other a noun.
Inflectional rules relate to different forms of the same lexeme - e.g., tense changes. Word formation rules relate to new lexemes derived from other lexemes - e.g., dishwasher from dish.