Heraldry here refers to not just the formal system of individual symbology developed in Europe in the 12th century, but also to field signs and vexillology in general.

Western heraldry

The earliest known work of heraldic jurisprudence was De Insigniis et Armis, written around 1350 CE by Bartolus de Saxoferrato.

Japanese heraldry

Japanese heraldry originated in the mid-Heian period (900-1000 CE). Like Western heraldry, it was restricted to the nobility.

紋 - the character for mon

Books to Read

Web Links

A Roll of Japanese Armory